Types of Assessment

Formative Assessment




• improve teaching, modify instruction

• develop & improve student learning

• measure results of and/or judge student learning, determine if student has mastered specific competencies

• summarize or evaluation student learning at a point in time

• most common type of assessment

• evaluate the effectiveness of instructional programs & services at the end of an academic year or a pre-determined time


• ongoing, continuous

• done in context of teaching, learning

• culminating activity

• done after instruction is completed

Technology Integration Advice

• ". . . educators should clearly define why and how technology will further the formative assessment process and enhance student learning."

Online Information & Resources

Research based = consistent formative assessment can > achievement, especially for low achievers


Test-Based promotion (summative assessment) - Research Results is mixed & depended on unit of analysis can have negative unintended outcomes

Analysis unit: state data:

  • > achievenement < achievement gap

  • > achievement > achievement gap

  • no change achievement & some losses (Darling-Hammond, L., 2010, The Flat World and Education. How American's Commitment to Equity will Determine Our Future, p. 75)

Analysis unit: individual or school level data:

High rates of


Key Point: Literacy (What is means) Evolves <---->Assessment must Evolve